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Glossary of Technical Terms - S

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Saddle Valve: Valve body shaped so it may be silver brazed to refrigerant tubing surfaces

Safety Control: Device which will stop the refrigerating unit if unsafe pressures and /or temperatures are reached

Safety Plug: Device which will release the contents of a container above normal pressure conditions and before rupture pressures are reached

Saturated Vapor: A vapor condition which will result in condensation into droplets of liquid as vapor temperature is reduced

Saturation: A condition existing when a substance contains maximum of another substance for that temperature and pressure

Schrader Valve: Spring loaded device which permits fluid flow when a center pin is depressed

Scotch Yoke: Mechanism used to change reciprocating motion into rotary motion on vice-versa

SCR: A solid state device (silicon controlled recitier) Used to modulate the capacity of an electric heating element

Secondary Air: Combustion air externally supplied to a burner flame at the point of combustion

Secondary Voltage: The output, or load supply voltage, of a transformer

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat will flow only form material at certain temperature to material at lower temperature

Semi hermetic Compressor: A serviceable hermetic compressor

Sensible Heat: A term used in heating and cooling to indicate any portion of heat which changes only the temperature of the substances involved; also heat which changes the temperature of a substance without changing its form

Sequencer: A controller used in electric heat systems to stagger the operation of the heating elements

Series: A circuit with one continuous path for current flow

Serviceable Hermetic: Hermetic unit housing containing motor and compressor assembled by use of bolts and threads

Service Valve: Device used by service technicians to check pressures and change refrigerating units

Shaded Pole Motor: A small ac motor used for light start loads

Shaft Seal: A device used to prevent leakage between shaft and housing

Short Circuit: A low-resistance connection (usually accidental and undesirable) between two parts of an electrical circuit

Short Cycling: Refrigerating system that starts and stops more frequently that it should

Sight Glass: Glass tube or glass window in refrigerating mechanism which shows amount of refrigerant, or oil in system

Silica Gel: Chemical compound used as a drier, which has ability to absorb moisture

Silver Brazing: Brazing process in which brazing alloy contains some silver as part of joining alloy

Sling Psychrometer: Humidity measuring device with wet and dry bulb thermometers

Slugging: A condition where liquid refrigerant is entering an operating compressor

Smoke Test: Test made to determine completeness of combustion

Soft Flame: A flame partially deprived of primary air such that the combustion zone is extended and inner cone is ill defined

Solar Heat: Heat form visible and invisible energy waves from the sun

Soldering: Joining tow metals by adhesion of a low melting temperature metal (less than 8000F)

Solenoid: A movable plunger activated by an electromagnetic coil

Solenoid Valve: Valve actuated by magnetic action by means of an electricity energized coil

Soot: A black substance, mostly consisting of small particles of carbon, which can result from incomplete combustion

Specific Gravity: For a liquid or solid, the ratio of its density compared to water. For vapor, the ratio of its density to air

Specific Heat: The heat absorbed (or given up) by a unit mass of a substance when its temperature is increase (or decreased) by 1-degree, calories per (gram) (centigrade degree). For gases, both specific heat at constant pressure (Cp) and specific heat at constant volume (Cv) are frequently used. In air-conditioning, Cp is usually used

Specific Volume: The volume of a substance per unit mass: the reciprocal of density units: cubic feet per pound, cubic centimeters per gram, etc

Split-Phase Motor: Motor with tow stator windings

Split System: Refrigeration or air conditioning installation which places condensing unit remote from evaporator

Squirrel Cage: Fan which has blades parallel to fan axis and moves air at right angles to fan axis

Standard Conditions: Temperature of 68oF, pressure of 29.92 in of Hg and relative humidity of 30 percent

Starting Relay: An electrical device which connects and/or disconnects starting winding of electric motor

Starting Winding: Winding in electric motor used only during brief period when motor is starting.

Static Pressure: The pressure exerted against the inside of a duct or pipe in all directions

Stator: Stationary part of electric motor

Steam Jet Refrigeration: Refrigerating system which uses a steam venture to create high vacuum (low pressure) on a water container causing water to evaporate at low temperature

Steam Trap: A device that will prevent the flow of steam, but will allow the flow of condensate

Strainer: A screen used to retain solid particles while liquid passes through

Stratification: Condition in which air lies in temperature layers.

Sub cooling: Cooling of liquid refrigerant below its condensing temperature

Sublimation: Condition where a substance changes from a solid to a gas without becoming a liquid.

Suction line: tube or pipe used to carry refrigerant gas from evaporator to compressor

Suction Service Valve: A two-way manual-operated valve located at the inlet to compressor

Superheat: Temperature of vapor above boiling temperature of its liquid at that pressure

Surge Tank: Container connected to a refrigerating system which increases gas volume and reduces rate of pressure change

Swaging: Enlarging on tube end so end of other tube of same size will fit within

Swash Plate-Wobble Plate: Device used to change rotary motion to reciprocating motion.

Sweating: Condensation of moisture from air on cold surface

Sweet Water: Tap water


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